USCIS Threatens to Destroy H-1B by Redefining “Specialty Occupation”. What Happened to Trump’s “Merit-Based” Hypocrisy?

May 4th, 2018

The following is an expanded version of my initial comment below, including some observations about the larger context of the Trump administration’s assault on the H-1B visa program as part of a concerted attack against other types of skilled and professional immigration, and legal immigration in general.

Around the beginning of this year, the Trump administration launched an intense and well-publicized attack on America’s legal immigration system by calling for the abolition of “chain migration”, i.e. extended family immigration (which Trump referred to as “horrible” in a December 29, 2017 tweet) and the Diversity Visa (DV) lottery.

Family immigration has been one of the main pillars of America’s legal immigration system for the past 50 years, and the DV lottery has enabled over a million immigrants from every part of the world to obtain green cards within the past two decades.

While both these programs very arguably had their origins in attempts to preserve at least some of the mainly white dominance in legal immigration that had been in effect prior to the landmark civil rights era 1965 immigration reform law, their actual effect was to open America’s legal immigration system to people from every part of the world, without discrimination based in race, color, religion or national origin, in contrast to the previous openly racist, “Nordics”- only 1924 immigration act which had been in effect for the previous 40 years.

In proposing to abolish these two important race-neutral immigration programs, Trump called for a “merit-based”immigration system instead, and proposed a 4-point framework which was purportedly designed to accomplish that goal. He also strongly supported two Congressional proposals, the so- called RAISE Act in the Senate, and a bill introduced by Representative Bob Goodlatte (R-VA) in the House, both of which would have ostensibly accomplished the same purpose and which were obviously designed to make drastic cuts in legal immigration from outside Europe.

However, while vigorously touting “merit-based” immigration as the cornerstone of his immigration policies for the future, Trump has also been hypocritically trying to undermine skilled and professional immigration, especially H-1B, which, ever since it assumed its present form in 1990, has been the essence of what merit-based immigration means.

The H-1B visa, which is another important avenue to opening America’s gates to qualified immigrants from every part of the world, and is especially popular with well-educated and innovative IT professionals from India and other Asian countries, has long been under attack by immigration opponents, on the specious grounds that these professionals allegedly take jobs away from qualified Americans by working for lower wages.

This charge has been shown by studies to have no more truth than Trump’s baseless charges that Hispanic immigrants have a higher crime rate than native-born Americans (while studies have also shown that the opposite is true).

Nor is the H-1B visa by any means limited to professionals from India or in the IT industry. It is used by college graduates from all over the world with bachelor degrees (or equivalent) working in finance, education, design, marketing, and a wide variety of other “specialty occupations”.

Trump’s own hostility to the H-1B visa is relatively recent. He initially supported this program at the beginning of his campaign and also defended Asian professionals working in Silicon Valley, many of whom are in H-1B status, in a 2015 interview with then Breitbart News Editor (and now Trump’s ousted former top adviser) Steve Bannon, who had attacked these professionals on explicitly racial grounds.

https://www.vanityfair.com/news/2016…ley-inaccurate

But suddenly, midway in his campaign, Trump, reportedly under prodding from his chief immigration campaign adviser, then Senator and now attorney general Jeff Sessions, suddenly changed his mind and called for the abolition of H-1B.

https://www.washingtontimes.com/news…ogram-in-wash/

True to his campaign promise (just as he also did not forget his campaign promises to take action against Hispanic, Muslim and other non-European immigrants), one of the first things that Trump did upon taking office was to launch an attack on skilled and professional immigrants in his so-called:Buy American-Hire American executive order.

However, while this attack was vague and limited to directing a “review” of H-1B and other skilled immigrant visa programs, USCIS has now issued the clearest possible warning, in the form of an April 4 letter from Director Lee Francis Cissna to Senator Charles Grassley (R-Iowa) one of H-1B’s longest and most persistent antagonists, that this visa may now be on the Trump administration’s chopping block.

The following is the most ominous passage from the letter, as far as the future of H-1B is concerned in this administration:

“USCIS has also announced that it is working on two proposed regulations to improve the H-1B program…The second regulation will propose to revise the definition of specialty occupation, consistent with INA Section 214(i), to increase the focus on obtaining the best and the brightest foreign nationals via the H-1B visa holders, and to revise the definition of employment and employer-employee relationship to better protect U.S. workers and wages.” 
(Italics added.)

A direct link to the full letter is available through a thinkprogress.org article which describes a number of ways in which the Trump administration is trying to eviscerate the H-1B program:

https://thinkprogress.org/trump-immigrants-h1b-h4/

To any H-1B practitioner with even a moderate amount of experience in this field, the words: “revise the definition of specialty occupation” should be like a four alarm siren to a seasoned firefighter. Nothing is more central to the concept and the functioning of of the H-1B visa than the definition of a specialty occupation. Nothing, at least in this writer’s own more than 30 year experience as an H-1B lawyer, has been a bigger or more troublesome source of RFE’s for this visa.

The danger to the entire H-1B program inherent in revising the definition of a specialty occupation is underscored by the Orwellian reason that the letter gives for doing so:

“to increase focus on obtaining the best and brightest foreign nationals via the H-1B program”.

The real intent, of course, is to keep as many of the best and brightest foreign nationals out of the Unites States as possible, especially of they come from India and other parts of Asia, as well as Latin America, Africa and the Middle East.

The administration’s intent to try to destroy the H-1B program rather than to “improve” it, is also from the context of Cissna’s letter as a whole. The letter also states that USCIS plans to eliminate employment authorization for H-4 spouses and to “redefine” the employer-employee relationship, obviously to make it even narrower and more restrictive than recent USCIS memos have already done, especially in the area of off-site or third party employment.

The letter also mentions recent USCIS actions aimed at making H-1B extensions more difficult.

As Shakespeare’s Marc Antony says:

“I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him.

One might say the same thing about Cissna’s letter regarding the H-1B visa.

One is also reminded of the reason given in Trump’s four-point Immigration “Reform’ Framework for eliminating extended family immigration beyond the nuclear family, which was given as ostensibly to “Promote nuclear family migration”

https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefings…rder-security/

Just as Trump’s idea of “promoting” family immigration is to bar millions of currently eligible family members from coming to the US, his plan for bringing the “best and brightest” H-1B immigrants to America is to keep all but a few of them out.

Trump’s assault on skilled and professional legal immigration in general is
described in more detail in a chilling FWD.us report which can also be accessed through the thinkprogress.org link provided above.

Attacking skilled and professional immigration from India and other non-European countries is also, without any serious question, part of a larger long term agenda of turning the focus of America’s entire immigration system back toward the pre-1965 policy of favoring “Countries like Norway”, to quote Trump’s notorious January 11 statement (not to mention his European supremacist “Blood and Soil” Warsaw, Poland speech on July 6, 2017 – an openly white nationalist address which has received far too little attention in the US media, and which I have commented on previously).

The clear purpose is to maintain white majority dominance and supremacy through racial exclusion immigration policies for many more decades to come, long after the Trump administration itself becomes part of America’s past history.

See Yale Law School Professor James Q. Whitman’s January, 2018 article:

Trump’s quest to Make America White Again

https://www.project-syndicate.org/co…rier=accessreg

As Marc Antony also says:

“The evil that men do lives after them.”

To conclude, as indicated above, showing that a given job offer qualifies as a “specialty occupation” is already one of the most difficult and complex parts of the entire H-1B system. Last year, it was without doubt a major source of the politically motivated increase in openly biased RFE’s, and if last year is any guide, this year could very well be even worse.

In my next comment on this issue, I will discuss some recent examples of specialty occupation RFE’s from my own H-1B practice, including cases of egregious twisting and disregard of H-1B regulations and USCIS’s own well established policies and practices, and I will suggest some ways for dealing with this vital and contentious issue, which goes to the heart of the entire H-1B program.


Roger Algase is a New York immigration lawyer and a graduate of Harvard College and Harvard Law School. He has been helping H-1B and other skilled and professional immigrants from diverse parts of the world receive work visas and green cards for more than 30 years. Roger’s email address is algaselex@gmail.com

This blog was originally posted on Immigration Law Blogs. It is shared here on ACEI-Global by permission from its author, Roger Algase.

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The Academic Credentials Evaluation Institute, Inc. (ACEI), was founded in 1994 and is based in Los Angeles, CA, USA. ACEI provides a number of services that include evaluations of international academic credentials for U.S. educational equivalence, translation, verification, and professional training programs. ACEI is a Charter and Endorsed Member of the Association of International Credential Evaluators. For more information, visit www.acei-global.org.

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Student Data Mobility, Diversity and Inclusion, and Emerging Trends for 2018

April 27th, 2018

DARPA_Big_Data

In April 2017 in Melbourne, Australia, ACEI became a signatory on the Groningen Declaration Network. The Association of International Credential Evaluators, of which AICE is a Charter and Endorsed Member, also became a signatory on the GDN. This year in April, the Groningen Declaration Network held its annual summit in Paris, France. The summit was held at the Marie-Curie campus of the University of Sorbonne. Presentations continued to revolve around the digital mobility of students worldwide, security and trust in platforms serving as hubs for digital documents, and the overall acceptance of receiving and processing academic transcripts and degrees digitally versus the paper form in sealed envelopes which have been the traditional form of issuing and releasing documents.

What is the Groningen Declaration?

According to their website, “The Groningen Declaration seeks common ground in best serving the academic and professional mobility needs of citizens world wide by bringing together key stakeholders in the Digital Student Data Ecosystem – we make Digital Student Data Portability happen. Citizens world wide should be able to consult and share their authentic educational data with whomever they want, whenever they want, wherever they are.”

Students are technically savvy more than ever. International admissions offices should provide positive messages while adapting to the advances of technology.  More than 80% of international students use their mobile devices to conduct their communication. Not only do we have to address the advancements in technology, we need to provide positive messages that international students and immigrants are welcome and safe at our campuses and in our country. Diversity and inclusion helps foster this message.

What is diversity and inclusion?

Diversity is any aspect that can be used to differentiate groups and people from one another, but it also means appreciation of and respect for differences in ethnicity, gender, age, national origin, disability, sexual orientation, education, and religion. Inclusion is about focusing on the needs of everyone and ensuring the right conditions are in place for each person to achieve their greatest potential.

There are many factors that increase the need for student data mobility:

  • Rising demand for immediate information. There is a huge increase in the use of apps and the need for immediate communication. (Whatsapp, Viber, Tango, WeChat, Skype, etc.).
  • Key players for international student data mobility and referrals include USA, UK, Australia, Germany, Canada, France, China, and New Zealand.
  • Rising popularity of transnationalism. The forces of globalization and transnationalism have transformed many countries once known as immigrant countries into both immigrant and emigrant countries such as Australia, New Zealand, Canada and Singapore.
  • Rise of web-based technology and learning. This is often called online learning or e-learning because it includes online course content. Discussion forums via email, videoconferencing, and live lectures (videostreaming) are all possible through the web. Web pages may contain hyperlinks to other parts of the web, giving access to a vast amount of web-based information.
  • Targeting and knowing your audience. By matching international students’ needs will increase engagement and improve significantly the relationship with them, as students want to be in control of the communication preferences. Send not only the right message to the right person at the right time, but also through the right channel.

Here are key trends affecting international education in 2018:

  • The price of oil. Russia, Venezuela, Brazil, Saudi Arabia, and Nigeria all rely heavily on the oil industry, where low oil costs will affect their population and their currency. Countries that depend on oil exports and will be affected by low oil prices.
  • English as a Second Language face-lift. The English language market is finding themselves in competition for market share, so providers are overhauling their course offerings and revamping their programming. Agents are also drivers of this trend as they see added value to English language learning.
  • Instant Messaging marketing. Mobile marketing provides international student offices direct and personal contact with potential students. Instant messaging is immediate and these messages are more targeted and have a higher target success rate.
  • Refugee crisis. During this difficult time, international educators are finding solutions to help students and scholars who were among the millions of refugees seen fleeing war and persecution. There will be an increasing need to assist this population and migrant support and credit recognition will be in the forefront as more educators move to provide scholarships, assistance, and language training.
  • Political climate and our current administration affect internationalism, immigration policy – especially for STEM graduates, H1 visa issues, and overall international relationships shapes our future.

By moving forward best practices and common ground for student data mobility, we can provide the best service to our international students. Pairing this with the message, “You are welcome and safe here,” we can provide positive messages to ensure international student admission growth and stability.

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The Academic Credentials Evaluation Institute, Inc. (ACEI), was founded in 1994 and is based in Los Angeles, CA, USA. ACEI provides a number of services that include evaluations of international academic credentials for U.S. educational equivalence, translation, verification, and professional training programs. ACEI is a Charter and Endorsed Member of the Association of International Credential Evaluators. For more information, visit www.acei-global.org.

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Dispatches from Paris, France: AACRAO IESC Tour of the Business Grande Ecoles and Groningen Declaration Network Summit, April 2018

April 19th, 2018

Paris2018

April in Paris. 80 degrees and sunny. Paris is a city built for walking and my colleagues from AACRAO IESC and I together kept daily log to see who had walked the most. Thanks to the apps on our smartphones or FitBits, we have been comparing notes on our individual steps and miles. Since my arrival last Saturday, I’ve clocked nearly 80,000 steps or about 50 miles. Not bad for a car dependent long-time resident of Los Angeles.

The primary purpose of the IESC’s visit to Paris has been to gather information on the Business Grande Ecoles in order to update the country profile on France and include the credentials offered by these specialized institutions of higher education. Members of IESC here in Paris include William Paver (FCSA), Robert Watkins (UT Austin), Emily Tse (IERF) and yours truly. Melanie Gottlieb, Deputy Director of AACRAO is also here in Paris and it is thanks to her that we had appointments to meet with administrators at the ESSEC, a Grande Ecole in Business, and representatives of the French Ministry of National Higher Education and Research.

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AACRAO’s IESC Delegation in Paris(L-R): William Paver, Robert Watkins, Jasmin Saidi-Kuehnert, Melanie Gottlieb, Emily Tse

Since IESC will be preparing a report on its recent visit and findings on the Business Grande Ecoles, I will not share details of our meetings as we are still waiting to receive additional information. However, I can say that our meetings with both ESSEC and the MOE were successful and offered us very helpful insight on the various access pipelines to the degree programs at the Grande Ecoles of Business. One thing that we were able to confirm is that the Diploma from a Grande Ecole and the title of Grade de Master represent completion five years of full-time study beyond the Baccalaureat. The first two years comprise of studies known as prepas or classe preparatoire which are completed at authorized schools in France. On completion of the two-year prepas, students intending to study at the Grande Ecoles of Business must sit for concours, entrance examination. Their performance on the concours will determine their eligibility for admission into the Grande Ecoles of Business where they continue their studies for an additional three years.

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Ministry of National Education, France

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AACRAO IESC delegation at Ministry of National Education – French officials, right to left: Dr. Jean-Luc Nahel, Dr. Nadine Van Der Tol, Prof. Jean-Luc Clemente. IESC delegation: Melanie Gottlieb, William Paver, Jasmin Saidi-Kuehnert, Robert Watkins, Emily Tse.

Immediately after the conclusion of our meetings, it was time to attend the Groningen Declaration Network annual summit, held at the University of Sorbonne, Marie-Curie campus. Discussion continues on what progress has been made in promoting digital mobility of student records worldwide. Of concern to many was the Melanie Gottlieb’s presentation on the GDPR, (General Data Protection Regulation) and how it may impact education and access to academic documents. Here’s a quick explanation of the GDPR: In April 2016, the European Parliament, The Council of the European Union, the European Commission drafted a Regulation (EU) 2016/679 of the European Parliament and of the Council on the Protection of national persons with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data. For more on the GDPR, click here.

Paris2018_6
Venue for the GDN Summit, Paris 2018

We are in the heart of the college and university center of Paris. We’re staying at a hotel near the University of Sorbonne where the GDN meetings are held, which is aptly name Rue des Écoles (Street of Schools). It is, therefore, impossible not to stumble or walk by a collège, institute, faculté, or université. As an international credential evaluator who has been in the field for 30 years, seeing the very institutions from which we receive academic transcripts to evaluate never gets old; in fact it’s downright invigorating and makes our work so much more tangible.

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Since there is still one more day of presentations left at the GDN, I may have more to report in another dispatch from Paris. In the meantime, stay tuned for updates on the Business Grande Ecoles from the IESC in the upcoming weeks.

A bientôt!

jasmin_2015
Jasmin Saidi-Kuehnert is the President and CEO of the Academic Credentials Evaluation Institute (ACEI).

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At ACEI, we see the importance of international education in our global economy and strive to maintain the exchange and dissemination of information by assisting colleges and universities, professional organizations, and employers around the world with our research and credential evaluation services that help enhance their reputation and competitive recruiting effectiveness. To learn more about ACEI and its services such as Credential Evaluation, Translation, Webinars and Training, and how we can assist you with your credential evaluation and recruitment needs, please visit www.acei-global.org or call us at 310.275.3530.

 

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15 Facts on The West African Examinations Council (WAEC)

April 12th, 2018

WA

If you are an admissions officers at a school or college or an international credential evaluator, an officer at a professional licensing board, or an employer reviewing credentials from West Africa, you have come across certificates issued by the West African Examinations Council. For some, these certificates and their authenticity pose confusion and may be challenging if unfamiliar with the nature and purpose of the Examinations Council.

In this blog, we will share some facts to help you with the review and evaluation of WAEC certificates.

1. The West African Examinations Council (WAEC) is an examination board that conducts the West African Senior School Certificate Examination (WASSCE) for universities in five West African countries and the Joint Admissions and Matriculations Board (JAMB) which is an entrance examination board for tertiary-level institutions in Nigeria.

2. WAEC was established in 1952 and serves the following Anglophonic countries of West Africa: Ghana, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Liberia, and the Gambia.

3. The council conducts the following four different categories of examinations:

  • International Examinations
  • National Examinations
  • Examinations conducted in collaboration with other examining bodies
  • Examinations conducted on behalf of other examining bodies

4. The International exams are exams taken in the five countries with the WAEC ordinance intended for WASSCE (West African Senior School Certificate Examination).

5. The National examinations are taken in individual countries and include the following:

  • Junior Secondary School Certificate for Nigeria and the Gambia
  • Junior and Senior High School Certificate Examinations for Liberia
  • National Primary School and Basic Education Certificate Examinations for Sierra Leone
  • Basic Education Certificate Examinations for Ghana
  • Senior School Certificate Examinations for Ghana

6. WAEC also coordinates examinations in collaboration with the following examination bodies:

7. WAEC conducts examination in West Africa on behalf of the following international examination bodies.

  • University of London GCE
  • Scholastic Aptitude Test for Educational Testing Service, Princeton, USA
  • Graduate Record Examinations for Education Testin Service, Princeton, US
  • JAMB (Joint Admissions and Matriculations Board) examination in countries outside Nigeria

8. Candidates are required to enter and sit for a minimum of 6 core subjects which include the following:

  • English Language
  • Mathematics
  • At least one Nigerian Language (a waiver has been given in by the Federal Ministry of Education in Nigerian since 2003)
  • At least one science subject (Physics, Chemistry or Biology)
  • Literature in English, History or Geography
  • Agricultural Science or at least one vocational subject

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9. In addition to the above, every student must take and sit for two or three of the subjects listed below that are not already offered as core subjects

  • Biology
  • Economics
  • Physics
  • Book Keeping
  • Chemistry
  • Typewriting
  • Further Mathematics
  • Shorthand
  • Commerce
  • History
  • Geography
  • Literature-in-English
  • Agricultural Science
  • Woodwork
  • Health Science
  • Auto-Mechanics
  • Building Construction
  • Music
  • Clothing & Textiles
  • Art
  • Christian Religious Knowledge
  • French
  • Islamic Studies
  • Physical Education
  • Arabic Studies
  • Government
  • Metal Work
  • Applied Electricity
  • Electronics
  • Foods and Nutrition
  • Technical Drawing
  • Home Management

10. The West African Senior School Certificate (WASSC) is conducted twice a year, May-June and November-December.

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11. The WASSC is open to students in the third year of senior secondary school, or those who have taken the examinations previously, or those with three GCE O Level passes, or any other qualification deemed equivalent.

12. WAEC Grading Scale is as follows:

Grade  Description

A1        Excellent

B2        Very good

B3        Good

C4        Credit

C5        Credit

C6        Credit

D7        Pass

E8        Pass

F9         fail

13. Students that complete the West African Examinations Council (WAEC) exam must submit a WAEC scratch card. The scratch card is needed in order to verify that the student has completed the equivalent of a U.S. high school diploma.

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14. Admissions officers, evaluators, employers, licensing boards in receipt of the WAEC WASSC must request the WAEC scratch card from the candidate in order to verify the exam results which can be done online through this link https://www.waecdirect.org/

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15. Students can purchase the WAEC scratch card at the national Office of WAEC and any of its zonal and branch offices in the respective 5 countries.

For individuals who have sat for the WAEC West African Senior School Certificate and need their credentials evaluated by ACEI, the following must be submitted: completed ACEI Application, original WAEC WSSC, WAEC scratch card.

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At ACEI, we see the importance of international education in our global economy and strive to maintain the exchange and dissemination of information by assisting colleges and universities, professional organizations, and employers around the world with our research and credential evaluation services that help enhance their reputation and competitive recruiting effectiveness. To learn more about ACEI and its services such as Credential Evaluation, Translation, Webinars and Training, and how we can assist you with your credential evaluation and recruitment needs, please visit www.acei-global.org or call us at 310.275.3530.

 

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40 Facts on Peru: The Country & its Education System

April 6th, 2018

peru

The Country

As a country, Peru has a deep rich history, dramatic and diverse landscapes, breathtaking architectural feats, incredible wildlife, and fascinating ancient culture. Peru is the third-largest country in South America. almost twice the size of Texas; slightly smaller than Alaska. Lima is the capital and largest city. Ancient Peru was the seat of several prominent Andean civilizations, most notably that of the Incas whose empire was captured by Spanish conquistadors in 1533. Peru declared its independence in 1821 and it’s government is a Presidential Republic.

Here are a few fun facts about the country:

1. There are 3 official languages in Peru: Spanish, Quechua and Aymara, but east of the Andes in Amazon jungle regions it is thought that natives speak 13 different indigenous languages.

2. The sacred city of Caral-Supe is said to the oldest residence of our ancestors as human beings in the Americas, and it is over 5,000 years old.

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Interesting Facts About Peru: Sacred City of Caral-Supe. Photo by Christopher Kleihege

3. Peru’s Macchu Pichu was named one of the New Seven Wonders of the World in 2007, along with the Great Wall of China and the Taj Mahal.

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4. The world has a population of 10 million Alpacas, but more than 3.5 million of them are found in Peru.

Alpaca
An Alpaca. It is a domesticated species of South American camelid. It resembles a small llama in appearance. Image credit – Wikipedia.org

5. There are over 3,000 different varieties of Potato grown in Peru. The potato is originally from Peru, and there are over 3,000 different varieties.

potato

The Education System

In 1996, the government of Peru passed education reforms that extended free and compulsory school education to all students aged between 5 and 16, known as educación básica (general stream) y técnico productiva (technical).

6. Literacy rate is 94.2%

7. Education is offered at four main levels: Primary; Secondary; Vocational and Technical; and

University.

8. Public education is free

9. Private schools operate at all levels of the education system.

10. As mandated in a 2008 ministerial decree, schools in both the public and private sectors follow the national curriculum which is set at the federal level and overseen by local education authorities.

11. The academic school year starts at the beginning of March and runs through to November/ December.

12. The language of instruction is Spanish. In some regional primary schools, Aymara or Quechua is the language of instruction with Spanish offered as a second language.

13. The Ministry of Education is the authority overseeing all levels of education from preschool through higher education and sets all education policy, legislation and curriculum guidelines.

ministry
Ministry of Education, Peru

14.  In January 2015, under the direction of the Minsitry of Education,  January 2015, a new higher education authority, known as the Superintendencia Nacional de Educación Superior Universitaria (SUNEDU, National Superintendency of University Higher Education) was formed replacing the Asamblea Nacional de los Rectores (ANR, National Assembly of Rectors) with the goal to improve quality standards and approving university operating licenses.

Elementary and Secondary School education

15. The school system is 12 years in duration.

16. Pre-school education (educación inicial) begins age 5 is 1 year and is compulsory.

17. Primary school (educación primaria) is for ages 6-11 and is 6 years in duration.

school

18. Secondary school (educación secundaria) is for ages 12-16 and is 5 years in duration.

19. General secondary education is 2 years in duration.

20. Academic secondary covering arts or science tracks is 3 years in duration and follows after general secondary.

21. Technical secondary education (Educación Secundaria Diversificada) is offered at colegios secundarios con variante técnica and is 3 years in duration and follows after general secondary.

22. Students who graduate from secondary school receive the Certificado Oficial de Estudios de Educación Secundaria which qualifies them to sit for university entrance examinations.

Post-Secondary Technical Education

23. Most technical and vocational training at the postsecondary level is offered at the following: Institutos y Escuelas de Educación Superior Technológicos – IEST (higher institutes of technology); Institutos de Educación Superior Pedagógicos – IESP (higher institutes of teaching); Institutos y Escuelas Superiores de Educación de Formación Artística – IESFA (higher institutes of arts).

24. The Título de Experto – or – Título de Segunda y Ulterior Especialización Profesional are available options for further graduate-level training in a field of specialty in which the candidate has obtained prior qualifications.

25. Credits, courses or programs completed in the technical and vocational higher education sector cannot be transferred to university study.

Teacher Training

26. Teacher training programs of 5 years in duration are offer at higher institutes of pedagogy (IESP) leading to the title of Profesor and mention of the educational level and specialization completed.

27. Teacher-training programs are also offered at universities.

28. Training of teachers in technical education are provided by the institutos superiors tecnológicos which are three years in duration and lead to the award of the Título de Profesional Técnico.

Higher education

29. Higher education is offered mainly through the nation’s university system.

30. Peru’s National University of San Marcos, which was founded in the year 1551, is the oldest university in the Americas.

nationaluni
National University of San Marcos

31. Currently, there are currently 51 public (nacional) universities and 89 private (particulare) universities – both for-profit and non-profit – operating in Peru. 

32. University-level institutions also include many specialized art, music and religious institutions that are called conservatorioinstituto, and escuela superior.

33. The academic year typically lasts 34-36 weeks and is divided into two semesters.

34. Courses are credit (créditos) weighted and start in late March or early April. A credit hour is equivalent to one hour (45-50 minutes) of instruction per week, or two hours of practical work per semester.

Undergraduate

35. The first two years of the academic degree of Bachiller requires general studies (estudios generals of at least 35 credits), followed by a period of specialization of three to five years (five to seven years total, minimum 200 credits). 

36. Students who hold the Bachiller and are pursuing the professional title (Licenciado / Titulo Profesional) must complete an additional requirement which can either be a thesis,  Six-month internship with a report or, in some cases, comprehensive examinations. The professional title is required in order to practice a profession in Peru.

Graduate

37. Admission to the graduate studies is based on a Bachiller or equivalent.

38. Graduate programs are typically two years in duration, require the defense of original research work and lead to the title of Grado deMaestro/Magister are typically two years in duration and require the defense of original research work.

39. The Titulo de Diplomado is a shorter one-year (24 credits) graduate certificate program.

40. Admission to a doctoral program requires a master’s degree which lasts a minimum of three years and requires the completion and defense of a dissertation.  Successful candidates are awarded the Grado de Doctor.

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At ACEI, we see the importance of international education in our global economy and strive to maintain the exchange and dissemination of information by assisting colleges and universities, professional organizations, and employers around the world with our research and credential evaluation services that help enhance their reputation and competitive recruiting effectiveness. To learn more about ACEI and its services such as Credential Evaluation, Translation, Webinars and Training, and how we can assist you with your credential evaluation and recruitment needs, please visit www.acei-global.org or call us at 310.275.3530.

Sources:

http://thefactfile.org/peru-facts/

https://alibi.com/blog/s/travel/31337/Fun-And-Not-So-Fun-Facts-About-Peru.html

https://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/50-fun-facts-you-probably-never-knew-about-peru_us_58507beee4b0a464fad3e4b5

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/pe.html

Education system: Peru, NUFFIC, The Netherlands

Electronic Database on Global Education, Peru, American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers, Washington, DC  www.aacrao.org

Online Guide to Educational Systems Around the World, Peru, NAFSAL Association of International Educators, Washington, DC   www.nafsa.org

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The AACRAO Conference from the Association of International Credential Evaluators, Inc. (AICE) Perspective

March 30th, 2018

The 104th AACRAO Annual Conference was held in Orlando, Florida, this week to gather thousands of professionals in the field of applied comparative education, student admissions, academic records, international education, and enrollment management. The Annual Conference provided four days of workshops, sessions, roundtables, and networking opportunities.

AACRAO Executives encouraged attendees to make the most of the Annual Conference by visiting the exhibition hall, where AICE Endorsed Members and Affiliates showcased the expert research, collaboration for best practices, and published set standards of AICE.

The AACRAO Program Committee developed a program that reflected the scope and breadth of their members’ professional responsibilities, including 200 sessions, round tables, poster sessions, and workshops.

AACRAO featured their 3rd Annual Film Festival to highlight how schools promote their programs and services which continuously played outside the Exhibition Hall.

The Annual Conference also provided several guest speakers, workshops, and professional sessions from a culmination of over a year of diligent planning by the AACRAO Program Committee.

ACEI President & CEO, AICE President and AACRAO International Evaluation Standards Council (IESC)- Electronic Database for Global Education (EDGE) Chair, Jasmin Saidi-Kuehnert, shared her expertise by presenting on the benefits and placement recommendations provided by EDGE, the leading online resource for evaluating foreign credentials. Ms. Saidi-Kuehnert also presented on Diversity and Inclusion in International Recruitment and a session on Mutual Recognition Issues between the US and countries in European Union.

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AICE Endorsed Members: Alex Popovski (L), Ucredo, Jasmin Saidi-Kuehnert (R), Academic Credentials Evaluation Institute

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AICE Endorsed Members: Aleks Morawski (L), Foreign Credits, Alex Popovski (R), UCredo

Several AICE Endorsed Members and Affiliates also contributed to the excellent offerings of educational sessions to help the attendees build their knowledge and skills ensuring student and institutional success. AICE Endorsed Member, Aleks Morawski, joined AICE Affiliate the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics’ (NAIA), Garrett Seelinger, and AACRAO to report on their recent trip to Cuba to collaborate with Cuba educational professionals via the AACRAO Cuba Project.

AICE Endorsed Member, Foreign Credentials Service of America (FCSA) founder Dr. William Paver and the Paver Family Foundation generously provided sponsorship for the elegant International Educators Reception, which overlooked the impressive hotel pool and lanai.

The well-attended International Luncheon featured Ms. Tolu Olubunmi, founder and CEO of Lions Write, a social venture dedicated to building initiatives committed to advocacy for migrants, refugees, and displaced people. She is recognized as one of the “15 Women Changing the World in 2015” and as an Outstanding Woman Entrepreneur. AICE Endorsed Members and Affiliates benefited from hearing Ms. Olubunmi’s message of advocating for the voiceless and collaborative efforts between corporations, governments, and civil society organizations.

Alan Alda, the multiple Emmy and Golden Globe winner, addressed a packed room to close the Annual Meeting to discuss his book, “If I Understood You, Would I Have This Look On My Face?” He interactively addressed effective communication techniques with humor and warmth.

The closing of the AACRAO Annual Meeting kicked off the AICE Symposium, “Setting the Standards for Evaluating Institutional Recognition and Accreditation” where AICE Endorsed Members and Affiliates, admission advisors, international credential evaluators, and AACRAO Executives meet to discuss critical issues surrounding our profession today.


The 2019 AACRAO Conference will be held in Los Angeles, California, followed by the 2019 AICE Symposium in the same locale.

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The Academic Credentials Evaluation Institute, Inc. (ACEI), was founded in 1994 and is based in Los Angeles, CA, USA. ACEI provides a number of services that include evaluations of international academic credentials for U.S. educational equivalence, translation, verification, and professional training programs. ACEI is a Charter and Endorsed Member of the Association of International Credential Evaluators. For more information, visit www.acei-global.org.

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10 Criteria to Consider for Outsourcing Your International Credential Evaluation Needs (and why ACEI is your trusted source!)

March 23rd, 2018

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In our previous blog, we wrote about the benefits of outsourcing international credential evaluations. In this week’s blog, we’d like to share with you the criteria you need to consider if your institution is looking to outsource its international credential evaluations.

With the need for increasing content and authenticity in the evaluation process comes the need for more education, training and experience on the part of the credential evaluator. Institutions seeking to outsource their international credential evaluations are advised to select a service or multiple services by requesting the following:

1. Membership

Is the credential evaluation agency an Endorsed Member of the Association of International Credential Evaluators (AICE)?

The Association of International Credential Evaluators is a non-profit professional association with unique set of criteria which employs a rigorous screening process in determining the eligibility of providers of international credential evaluation services to Endorsed membership. The AICE has published evaluation standards to which its members subscribe and conform to promote consistency and transparency in educational equivalency reporting.

Academic Credentials Evaluation Institute, Inc. is an Endorsed Member of the Association of International Credential Evaluators.

2. Years of Operation

Does the credential evaluation agency have a proven record of experience in the field?

Find out when the agency was established and how long it has been in operation. Number of years of operation as a credential evaluation service provider demonstrates longevity and continuity in a field where fluctuations in the market due to economic and political events affects the solvency of a company and its ability to work with credentials from around the world.

Academic Credentials Evaluation Institute, Inc. was founded in 1994 and is celebrating its 22nd year of service.

3. Standards

What evaluation standards and procedures does the credential evaluation agency employ in evaluating and determining U.S. educational equivalences?

It is important to find out the standards the evaluation agency uses in evaluating credentials to derive at U.S. educational equivalences. Does your institution have any guidelines in place when assessing international credentials? Are the standards used by the evaluation agency in line with your institution’s? If your institution doesn’t have any particular standards on evaluating international credentials, we recommend you refer to the AICE Evaluation Standards for guidelines.

As an Endorsed Member, ACEI adheres to the AICE Evaluation Standards in the preparation of evaluation of international credentials. Adherence to the AICE Evaluation Standards ensures consistency and transparency in evaluations and educational equivalence reporting.

4. Experience

Request and review a profile of the evaluation agency’s executive and evaluation staff. This information will help you assess the expertise and experience of the agency’s evaluation staff. It will also help you outline the methods the agency employs for its evaluators to receive continuous professional development.

√ At ACEI, information on the executive team is available on the website and for its evaluation staff is available on request. The evaluation staff at ACEI are classified at the senior level which means they each bring with them more than 10 years of committed and continuous hands-on experience in evaluating international academic credentials.

5. Services

What types of evaluation reports are provided by the credential evaluation agency?

It is important to determine the different types of evaluation reports the credential evaluation service provides to see if they are able to accommodate your institution’s needs.

At ACEI, we provide three types of evaluation reports: Basic (General Document-by-Document) Report; Comprehensive Course-by-Course (with Grades, GPA, Course Levels) Report; Course Match Evaluation (Comprehensive Course-by-Course with Grades, GPA, Course Levels and Course Match). In addition, ACEI evaluation reports can be customized to meet an institution’s specific needs. For example, ACEI will include information such as Language/Medium of Instruction and certified true copies of official/ original academic documents submitted with the official evaluation report.

6. Required Documents

What criteria does the evaluation company have in place in accepting academic documents?

It’s important to find out whether the evaluation company accepts official transcripts directly from the source institution, or original (“first-issued”) documents in the student’s possessions, photocopies or scanned documents submitted by students, or transcripts received electronically from the source institution.

The ACEI website identifies by country exactly what documents are required for evaluation and method of their submission. For some countries, ACEI strictly requires receipt of official transcripts directly from the source institution and from others, original documents to be provided by the students are accepted. Any original documents provided by the students are returned when the evaluation has been completed. Photocopies that have not been certified by the source institution are not accepted. Copies or scanned copies of documents are accepted for a preview but official/original documents are still required in order to prepare and issue an official evaluation report. Electronically transmitted official transcripts prepared by the source institution and released directly to ACEI are accepted for evaluation.

7. Processing Time

How long does it take for the evaluation agency to complete an evaluation?

The number of days an evaluation agency requires to complete an evaluation plays a significant part in the overall picture when a student’s application for admission is contingent on the evaluation report. You must determine the actual number of days it takes an agency to complete the evaluation and not the estimated time.  For example, an agency may claim a 10-day processing time but in practice it takes 20 or 30 or more days to complete its evaluation reports.

At ACEI, we’re proud to adhere to our claim of completing evaluations within 7 business days. This is an unprecedented turnaround time, unmatched by any other evaluation agency in the U.S. ACEI will complete evaluations within 7 business day from the date of receipt of the completed application form, required official/original academic documents and fees. The processing time is only extended in the event the student does not provide the required academic documents, fees, or submits and incomplete application. ACEI also provides 2 RUSH services whereby an evaluation can be completed within 24-hours or 3-business days on receipt of the completed application, required documents, and fees.

8. Library/Information Resources

What steps does the evaluation agency take in maintaining a dynamic in-house library?

A credential evaluation agency and the evaluation reports it generates are as good as its reference library. Maintaining an in-house library is one of the most important criteria in qualifying for Endorsed Membership with the Association of International Credential Evaluators. An in-house library that has in its collection historic and current publications and reference materials is the backbone of a full-service reputable evaluation agency.

ACEI is proud of its comprehensive in-house library of print and electronic publications which include historic references as well as the most up-to-date publications on world education systems and international directories of institutions of higher education. ACEI in-house library also has in its archives thousands of sample educational credentials and evaluation reports to use as reference. The ACEI Database of evaluation reports and country profiles is another helpful resource for its evaluation staff.

9. Website & Information

Does the evaluation company have a website that is user-friendly and informative?

A website serves as the portal to a company’s operation and services. An effective website must include information that is clear and transparent about its services, fees and procedures.

ACEI’s website provides detailed instructions on the application process, required academic documents for evaluation, types of evaluation reports, fees, methods of payment, processing time, and terms and conditions of service. The Frequently Asked Questions section of the ACEI website is also a helpful page to visit for supporting information.

10. Customer/Client Relations

How helpful and knowledgeable is the evaluation company’s staff?

And, last but not least, building a relationship with an evaluation company where you are confident that your institution’s needs and those of your international students are not ignored but handled in a timely and professional matter is essential. It is good to call the evaluation company and see if you are greeted by a friendly representative able and willing to answer your questions. If you emailed the company, how soon was your email answered?

ACEI’s official hours of business are from 9:00 AM PST – 4:00 PM PST Monday through Friday. ACEI has a 24-hour, 7-days a week answering phone service to handle basic phone inquiries during its non-business hours. During our regular business hours, our representatives are available to answer any of your phone and email inquiries. All phone messages and emails are answered within 24-hours.

In closing, by selecting a reputable evaluation service with proven years of experience, you are ensured the most up-to-date evaluation standards and practices. Indirectly, outsourcing also gives you access to the evaluation service’s resources: its library, database, knowledge and experience, online tools, and training. Finally, building a relationship with a credential evaluation agency creates an understanding between the parties that allows the agency to incorporate any special institutional needs into the evaluation. An on-going relationship with an evaluation service leads to consistency in the placement of students over time and across educational systems. It also provides the institution with an expert resource to consult when questions arise about credentials and placement.

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The Academic Credentials Evaluation Institute, Inc. (ACEI), was founded in 1994 and is based in Los Angeles, CA, USA. ACEI provides a number of services that include evaluations of international academic credentials for U.S. educational equivalence, translation, verification, and professional training programs. ACEI is a Charter and Endorsed Member of the Association of International Credential Evaluators. For more information, visit www.acei-global.org.

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